Thursday, January 31, 2019

Televisions Manipulation of the Facts Essay -- Argumentative Persuasi

Televisions Manipulation of the Facts One of the main activities that Ameri lavs participate in during their free quantify is watching the television. Since its invention over sixty years ago, the television has been a fountain of enjoyment and breeding for the Ameri git citizen (Pember, 1981). Though what one sees on the television is non what one should always believe. Many concourse get wind at television with the camera never lies attitude, and are easily manipulated by this medium. People are manipulated by television because most television computer programme is controlled by a small number of companies, this is a main get-go of entropy, and volume all too often trust what they witness in the media. Because television is controlled by an oligolistic market, the few companies that do control television program are able to benefit from a great deal of selectivity, and would not put something on a news cast that would harm their business. The media is to a fault able to manipulate people because television is one of the main sources of information in this country from local news casts, to news related magazines manage 20/20 and Dateline. These programs show a very limited expectation of the facts due to cartridge clip restraints and company wide bias (Kaufman, 1998). And umteen people do not question what they witness on news shows, which passel be very detrimental the their own knowledge of the facts. These three causes get up a society where the media many times has the upper hand in directing peoples decisions, and therefore manipulating society as a whole. In the neo era, with cable and satellite television there is wide array of program to choose from. A television connected to the latest technology green goddess receive over 200 channels. Many pe... ...dia significantly effects many of the decisions that we make in our lives, and the media has learned to control how American citizens think and behave. there is no wonder that wh at we see on television is called computer programming. Works Cited Bagdikian, B. (1983) The Media Monopoly pp. xv, 4, 187 Kaufman, R. (1998) analyze of Jerry Manders Four Arguments For The Elimination Of elevision availible online http//www.netreach.net/kaufman/ Mander, J. (1977) Four Arguments For The Elimination Of Television Re keep an eye on by Kaufman, R. availible on line http//www.netreach.net/kaufman/ Mann, J. (1982) What is TV doing to America, Impact of Mass Media pp. 25-27 Pember, D. (1981) Mass Media in America pp. 178, 181 Stevetwt (1998) Media Watch availible online http//www.infoasis.com/www/people/stevetwt/Media/media_watch.html Televisions Manipulation of the Facts Essay -- contentious PersuasiTelevisions Manipulation of the Facts One of the main activities that Americans participate in during their free time is watching the television. Since its invention over sixty years ago, the television has been a source of enjoyment and informati on for the American citizen (Pember, 1981). Though what one sees on the television is not what one should always believe. Many people front at television with the camera never lies attitude, and are easily manipulated by this medium. People are manipulated by television because most television programming is controlled by a small number of companies, this is a main source of information, and people all too often trust what they witness in the media. Because television is controlled by an oligolistic market, the few companies that do control television programming are able to benefit from a great deal of selectivity, and would not put something on a news cast that would harm their business. The media is in handle manner able to manipulate people because television is one of the main sources of information in this country from local news casts, to news related magazines like 20/20 and Dateline. These programs show a very limited view of the facts due to time restraints and company wide bias (Kaufman, 1998). And many people do not question what they witness on news shows, which can be very detrimental the their own knowledge of the facts. These three causes conjure a society where the media many times has the upper hand in directing peoples decisions, and therefore manipulating society as a whole. In the new era, with cable and satellite television there is wide array of programming to choose from. A television connected to the latest technology can receive over 200 channels. Many pe... ...dia significantly effects many of the decisions that we make in our lives, and the media has learned to control how American citizens think and behave. there is no wonder that what we see on television is called programming. Works Cited Bagdikian, B. (1983) The Media Monopoly pp. xv, 4, 187 Kaufman, R. (1998) freshen up of Jerry Manders Four Arguments For The Elimination Of elevision availible online http//www.netreach.net/kaufman/ Mander, J. (1977) Four Arguments For The Elimination Of Television Review by Kaufman, R. availible on line http//www.netreach.net/kaufman/ Mann, J. (1982) What is TV doing to America, Impact of Mass Media pp. 25-27 Pember, D. (1981) Mass Media in America pp. 178, 181 Stevetwt (1998) Media Watch availible online http//www.infoasis.com/www/people/stevetwt/Media/media_watch.html

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Introduction to Computer Organization and Computer Evolution Essay

In describing com stageers, a distinction is practically make between calculating machine in stampation dish uping placement figurer architecture and figurer organization. Although it is unenviable to bemuse precise definitions for these terms, a consensus exists approximately the full general beas covered by sepa assessly. info processor Architecture refers to those attri justes of a brass visible to a programmer or, put an another(prenominal) government agency, those attri exclusivelyes that sustain a direct impact on the logical execution of a program. Examples of architectural attri howeveres include the program line check, the arrive of kidnappings apply to represent various info types (e.g., numbers, characters), I/O mechanisms, and techniques for minimal brain damageressing reminiscence. Computer governance refers to the operational wholes and their interconnectednesss that originalize the architectural specifications. Examples of organizational a ttributes include those hardw atomic number 18 flesh out transparent to the programmer, such as check over signals interfaces between the calculator and peripherals and the warehousing technology used.As an example, it is an architectural design issue whether a electronic entropy processor impart have a multiply instruction. It is an organizational issue whether that instruction will implemented by a special multiply whole of measurement or by a mechanism that makes repeated use of the add unit of the system. The organizational decision may be based on the anticipated frequency of use of the multiply instruction, the relative speed of the cardinal approaches, and the terms and somatic size of it of a special multiply unit. Historically, and unflustered today, the distinction between architecture and organization has been an important mavin. M just about(prenominal) entropy processor producers offer a family of ready reckoner models, all with the identical arc hitecture but with differences in organization.Consequently, the different models in the family have different price and cognitive process characteristics. Further much than, a particular architecture may span m whatever geezerhood and encompass a number of different electronic computer models, its organization ever-changing with changing technology. A prominent example of both(prenominal) these phenomena is the IBM System/370 architecture. This architecture was start introduced in 1970 and included a number of models.The client with unassuming requirements could buy a cheaper, slower model and, if demand increased, later call down to a more expensive, faster model without having to abandon software system that had already been developed. These youthfuler models retained the akin architecture so that the customers software investment was protected. Remarkably, the System/370 architecture, with a few enhancements, has survived to this day as the architecture of IBMs ma inframe product line.II.Structure and FunctionA computer is a complex system contemporary computers contain millions of childlike electronic components. The constitute is to recognize the vertical nature of about complex systems, including the computer. A hierarchical system is a shape of interrelated subsystems, each of the latter, in turn, hierarchical in social system until we reach some lowest level of elementary subsystem. The hierarchical nature of complex systems is essential to both their design and their description. The designer occupy only deal with a particular level of the system at a beat. At each level, the system consists of a set of components and their interrelationships.The behaviour at each level depends only on a simplified, abstracted characterization of the system at the next lower level. At each level, the designer is concerned with structure and function Structure The way in which the components are interrelated Function The operation of each item- by-item component as part of the structure The computer system will be described from the top down. We begin with the major(ip) components of a computer, describing their structure and function, and proceed to successively lower layers of the hierarchy.FunctionBoth the structure and functioning of a computer are, in essence, simple. signifier 1.1 depicts the prefatory functions that a computer atomic number 50 perform. In general terms, in that location are only cardinal Data bear on The computer, of course, must(prenominal) be able to process data. The data may take a wide variety of forms, and the range of processing requirements is broad. However, we shall see that there are only a few total methods or types of data processing. Data reposition It is excessively essential that a computer store data. Even if the computer is processing on the strike down (i.e., data come in and start out processed, and the results go out immediately), the computer must temporarily stor e at least those pieces of data that are being worked on at any given moment. Thus, there is at least a short-term data stock function. Equally important, the computer performs a long-term data shop function. Files of data are stored on the computer for subsequent retrieval and update.Data tendency The computer must be able to move data between itself and the outside world. The computers operating environment consists of catchs that serve as either seeds or destinations of data. When data are received from or delivered to a guile that is flat connected to the computer, the process is known as input- outturn (I/O), and the device is referred to as a peripheral. When data are moved over longer distances, to or from a remote device, the process is known as data colloquy theory. Control at long last there must be hold in of these three functions. Ultimately, this control is exercised by the individual(s) who provides the computer with instructions. Within the computer, a control unit manages the computers resources and orchestrates the writ of execution of its functional parts in response to those instructions.FIGURE 1.1 A FUNCTIONAL VIEW OF THE information processing systemAt this general level of discussion, the number of practicable operations that john be per create is few. suppose 1.2 depicts the four likely types of operations. The computer heap function as a data relocation device (Figure 1.2a), simply transferring data from one peripheral or communications line to another. It can alike function as a data storage device (Figure 1.2b), with data transferred from the remote environment to computer storage (read) and vice versa (write). The final cardinal diagrams show operations involving data processing, on data either in storage (Figure 1.2c) or en pass between storage and the external environmentStructureFigure 1.3 is the simplest attainable depiction of a computer. The computer interacts in some fashion with its external e nvironment. In general, all of its linkages to the external environment can be categorise as peripheral devices or communication lines. There are four main structural components (Figure 1.4) Central Processing Unit ( mainframe computer) Controls the operation of the computer and performs its data processing functions often simple referred to as processor principal(prenominal) storehouse Stores dataI/O Moves data between the computer and its external environment System interconnection Some mechanism that provides for communication among central processor, main reminiscence, and I/OFIGURE 1.3 THE COMPUTERFIGURE 1.4 THE COMPUTER TOP-LEVEL STRUCTUREThere may be one or more of each of the afore hinted components. Traditionally, there has been just a single CPU. In recent years, there has been increase use of multiple processors in a single computer. The most interesting and in some ways the most complex component is the CPU its structure is depicted in Figure 1.5. Its major structura l components are Control unit Controls the operation of the CPU and hence the computer Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) Performs the computers data processing functions Registers Provides storage internal to the CPUCPU interconnection Some mechanism that provides for communication among the control unit, ALU, and registersFIGURE 1.5 THE CENTRAL bear upon UNIT (CPU)Finally, there are several approaches to the implementation of the control unit one common approach is a microprogrammed implementation. In essence, a microprogrammed control unit operates by executing microinstructions that define the functionality of the control unit. The structure of the control unit can be depicted as in Figure 1.6.FIGURE 1.6 THE CONTROL UNITIII.Importance of Computer Organization and ArchitectureThe computer lies at the heart of reckon. Without it most of the computing disciplines today would be a branch of the theoretical mathematics. To be a professional in any field of computing today, one sho uld not regard the computer as just a black box that executes programs by magic. All students of computing should acquire some on a lower floorstanding and appreciation of a computer systems functional components, their characteristics, their performance, and their interactions. There are practical implications as well. Students need to understand computer architecture in order to structure a program so that it runs more efficiently on a real machine. In selecting a system to use, they should be able to understand the tradeoff among various components, such as CPU clock speed vs. fund size. Reported by the Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula of the IEEE ( establish of galvanic and Electronics Engineers) Computer Society and ACM (Association for Computing Machinery).IV.Computer EvolutionA brief score of computers is interesting and also serves the purpose of providing an overview of computer structure and function. A condition of the need for balanced utilization of computer resources provides a context that is useful.The stolon Generation Vacuum TubesENIAC The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer), designed by and constructed under the supervision of John Mauchly and John Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania, was the worlds setoff general electronic digital computer. The project was a response to U.S. wartime call for during World War II. The Armys Ballistics Research research testing groundoratory (BRL), an agency responsible for developing range and trajectory tables for modernistic weapons, was having encumbrance supplying these tables accurately and within a reasonable time frame. Mauchly, a professor of electrical engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, and Eckert, one of his graduate students, proposed to shit a general-purpose computer using vacuum tubes for the BRLs application program. In 1943, the Army accepted this proposal, and work began on the ENIAC.The resulting machine was enormous, weighing 30 tons, occupying 1500 squre feet of floor space and containing more than 18,000 vacuum tubes. When operating, it consumed 140 kilowatts of power. It was also considerably faster than any electromechanical computer, being capable of 5000 additions per second. The ENIAC was a denary rather than a binary machine. That is, numbers were stand for in decimal form and arithmetic was performed in the decimal system. Its memory consisted of 20 accumulators, each capable of holding a 10-digit decimal number. A ring of 10 vacuum tubes represented each digit. At any time, only one vacuum tube was in the ON state, representing one of the 10 digits. The major drawback of the ENIAC was that it had to be programmed manually by setting switches and plugging and unplugging cables. The ENIAC was completed in 1946, as well as late to be used in the war effort. Instead, its first channel was to perform a series of complex calculations that were used to help hold the feasibility of the hydr ogen bomb.The use of the ENIAC for a purpose other than that for which it was make demonstrated its general-purpose nature. The ENIAC continued to operate under BRL management until 1955, when it was disassembled. The von von Neumann Machine The task of entering and altering programs for the ENIAC was extremely tedious. The programming process could be facilitated if the program could be represented in a form suitable for storing in memory alongside the data. Then, a computer could get its instructions by reading them from memory, and a program could be set or altered by setting the values of a chance of memory. This idea, known as the stored-program concept, is usually attributed to the ENIAC designers, most notably the mathematician John von Neumann, who was a consultant on the ENIAC project.Alan Turing developed the idea at about the same time. The first publication of the idea was in a 1945 proposal by von Neumann for a new computer, the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Aut omatic Computer). In 1946, von Neumann and his colleagues began the design of a new stored-program computer, referred to as the IAS computer, at the Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies. The IAS computer, although not completed until 1952, is the prototype of all subsequent general-purpose computers. Figure 1.7 shows the general structure of the IAS computer. It consists of A main memory, which stores both data and instructionsAn arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) capable of operating on binary data A control unit, which interprets the instructions in memory and causes them to be executed Input and output (I/O) equipment operated by the control unitFIGURE 1.7 STRUCTURE OF THE IAS COMPUTERCommercial ComputersThe 1950s saw the redeem of the computer industry with two companies, Sperry and IBM, dominating the marketplace. UNIVAC I In 1947, Eckert and Mauchly formed the Eckert-Mauchly Computer deal to manufacture computers commercially. Their first successful machine was the UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer), which was commissioned by the Bureau of the Census for the 1950 calculations. The Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation became part of the UNIVAC division of Sperry-Rand Corporation, which went on to micturate a series of alternate machines. The UNIVAC I was the first successful commercial computer. It was intended, as the name implies, for both scientific and commercial applications. The first paper describing the system listed matrix algebraic computations, statistical problems, premium billings for a life insurance company, and logistical problems as a sample of the tasks it could perform.UNIVAC II The UNIVAC II which had greater memory content and high performance than the UNIVAC I, was delivered in the late 1950s and illustrates several trends that have remained characteristic of the computer industry. First, advances in technology allow companies to continue to build larger, more powerful computers. Second, each company tries to make its new machines upwardly compatible with the older machines. This means that the programs written for the older machines can be executed on the new machine. This strategy is adopted in the hopes of retaining the customer base that is, when a customer decides to buy a newer machine, he or she is likely to get it from the same company to avoid losing the investment in programs.The UNIVAC division also began development of the 1100 series of computers, which was to be its major source of revenue. This series illustrates a distinction that existed at one time. In 1955, IBM, which stands for international Business Machines, introduced the companion 702 product, which had a number of hardware features that suited it to business applications. These were the first of a long series of 700/7000 computers that established IBM as the overwhelmingly dominant computer manufacturer.The Second Generation TransistorsThe first major deepen in the electronic computer came with the replacement of the vacu um tube by the transistor. The transistor is baseborner, cheaper, and dissipates less heat than a vacuum tube but can be used in the same way as a vacuum tube to construct computers. Unlike the vacuum tube, which requires wires, metallic element plates, a glass capsule, and a vacuum, the transistor is a solid-state device, do from silicon. The transistor was invented at Bell Labs in 1947 and by the 1950s had launched an electronic revolution. The National Cash Registers (NCR) and, more successfully, Radio Corporation of America (RCA) were the front-runners with some polished transistor machines.IBM followed shortly with the 7000 series. The second generation is noteworthy also for the appearance of the Digital Equipment Corporation (celestial latitude). DEC was founded in 1957 and, in that year, delivered its first computer, the PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor). This computer and this company began the minicomputer phenomenon that would become so prominent in the third gener ation. The IBM 7094 From the introduction of the 700 series in 1952 to the introduction of the last ingredient of the 7000 series in 1964, this IBM product line underwent an evolution that is typical of computer products. Successive members of the product line show increased performance, increased capacity, and/or lower cost.Table 1.1 illustrates this trend.The Third Generation Integrated CircuitA single, self-contained transistor is called a discrete component. Throughout the 1950s and earlyish 1960s, electronic equipment was composed largely of discrete componentstransistors, resistors, capacitors, and so on. Discrete components were manufacture separately, case in their own containers, and soldered or wired together onto masonite-like duty tour get along withs, which were then installed in computers, oscilloscopes, and other electronic equipment. Early second-generation computer contained about 10,000 transistors. This figure grew to the hundreds of thousands, making the man ufacture of newer, more powerful machines increasingly difficult. In 1958 came the achievement that revolutionized electronics and started the era of microelectronics the invention of the integrated electrical roach.Microelectronics Microelectronics means, literally, small electronics. Since the beginnings of digital electronics and the computer industry, there has been a persistent and consistent trend toward the reduction in size of digital electronic laps. The basic elements of a digital computer, as we know, must perform storage, movement, processing, and control functions. Only two fundamental types of components are required gates and memory cells.A gate is a device that implements a simple Boolean or logical function. Such devices are called gates because they control data flow in much the same way that canal gates do. The memory cell is a device that can store one bit of data that is, the device can be in one of two stable states at any time. By interconnecting large numbers of these fundamental devices, we can construct a computer. We can relate this to our four basic functions as followsData storage Provided by memory cells.Data processing Provided by gates.Data movement The paths between components are used to move data from memory to memory and from memory through gates to memory.Control The paths between components can brook control signals. When the control signal is ON, the gate performs its function on the data inputs and produces a data output. Similarly, the memory cell will store the bit that is on its input lead when the WRITE control signal is ON and will place the bit that is in the cell on its output lead when the READ control signal is ON. Thus, a computer consists of gates, memory cells, and interconnections among these elements. The integrated circuit exploits the fact that such components as transistors, resistors, and conductors can be fabricated from a semiconducting material such as silicon. It is merely an lengthening o f the solid-state art to fabricate an entire circuit in a tiny piece of silicon rather than assemble discrete components made from separate pieces of silicon into the same circuit.Many transistors can be produced at the same time on a single wafer of silicon. Equally important, these transistors can be connected with a process of metallization to form circuits. Figure 1.8 depicts the key fruit concepts in an integrated circuit. A thin wafer of silicon is divided into a matrix of small areas, each a few millimetres square. The identical circuit pattern is fabricated in each area, and the wafer is broken up into go overs. to each one chip consists of many gates and/or memory cells plus a number of input and output attachment points. This chip is then packaged in housing that protects it and provides pins for attachment to devices beyond the chip. A number of these packages can then be interconnected on a printed circuit board to produce larger and more complex circuits.As time went on, it became possible to pack more and more components on the same chip. This growth in density is illustrated in Figure 1.9 it is one of the most remarkable technological trends ever recorded. This figure reflects the famous Moores law, which was propounded by Gordon Moore, cofounder of Intel, in 1965. Moore observed that the number of transistors that could be put on a single chip was doubling every year and correctly predicted that this pace would continue into the adjacent future.FIGURE 1.9 GROWTH IN CPU TRANSISTOR COUNTThe consequences of Moores law are profound1.The cost of a chip has remained roughly unchanged during this period of rapid growth in density. This means that the cost of computer logic and memory circuitry has fallen at a spectacular rate. 2.Because logic and memory elements are placed closer together on more densely packed chips, the electrical path length is shortened, increasing operating speed. 3.The computer becomes smaller, making it more convenie nt to place in a variety of environments. 4.There is a reduction in power and cool requirements.5.The interconnections on the integrated circuit are much more time-tested than solder connections. With more circuitry on each chip, there are fewer interchip connections. IBM System/360 By 1964, IBM had a firm grip on the computer market with its 7000 series of machines. In that year, IBM announced the System/360, a new family of computer products. Although the announcement itself was no surprise, it contained some unpleasant news for reliable IBM customers the 360 product line was incompatible with older IBM machines.Thus, the transition to the 360 would be difficult for the current customer base. This was a bold step by IBM, but one IBM felt was necessary to break out of some of the constraints of the 7000 architecture and to produce a system capable of evolving with the new integrated circuit technology. The 360 was the success of the decade and cemented IBM as the overwhelmingly dominant computer vendor, with a market share above 70%. The System/360 was the industrys first planned family of computers. The family covered a wide range of performance and cost. Table 1.2 indicates some of the key characteristics of the various models in 1965.The concept of a family of compatible computers was both novel and extremely successful. The characteristics of a family are as follows Similar or identical instruction set The program that executes on one machine will also execute on any other. Similar or identical operating system The same basic operating system is available for all family members. increase speed the rate of instruction execution increases in going from lower to higher(prenominal)(prenominal) family members. Increasing number of I/O ports In going from lower to higher family members. Increasing memory size In going from lower to higher family members. Increasing cost In going from lower to higher family members.DEC PDP-8 Another momentous first shipment o ccurred PDP-8 from DEC. At a time when the average computer required an air-conditioned room, the PDP-8 (dubbed a minicomputer by the industry) was small enough that it could be placed on top of a lab bench or be built into other equipment. It could not do everything the mainframe could, but at $16,000, it was cheap enough for each lab technician to have one. The low cost and small size of the PDP-8 enabled another manufacturer to purchase a PDP-8 and integrate it into a total system for resale. These other manufacturers came to be known as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and the OEM market became and remains a major segment of the computer marketplace. As DECs semiofficial history puts it, the PDP-8 established the concept of minicomputers, leading the way to a multibillion dollar bill industry.Later GenerationsBeyond the third generation there is less general agreement on defining generations of computers. Table 1.3 suggests that there have been a number of later genera tions, based on advances in integrated circuit technology. GenerationApproximate DatesTechnologyTypical Speed (operations per second)With the rapid pace of technology, the high rate of introduction of new products and the importance of software and communications as well as hardware, the potpourri by generation becomes less clear and less meaningful. In this section, we mention two of the most important of these results. Semiconductor Memory The first application of integrated circuit technology to computers was construction of the processor (the control unit and the arithmetic and logic unit) out of integrated circuit chips. But it was also found that this same technology could be used to construct memories. In the 1950s and 1960s, most computer memory was constructed from tiny peal of ferromagnetic material, each about a sixteenth of an inch in diameter. These rings were strung up on grids of fine wires suspended on small screens inside the computer. Magnetized one way, a ri ng (called a core) represented a one magnetized the other way, it stood for a zero.It was expensive, bulky, and used baneful readout. Then, in 1970, Fairchild produced the first relatively capacious semiconductor memory. This chip, about the size of a single core, could hold 256 bits of memory. It was non-destructive and much faster than core. It took only 70 billionths of a second to read a bit. However, the cost per bit was higher than for that of core. In 1974, a seminal event occurred The price per bit of semiconductor memory dropped below the price per bit of core memory. Following this, there has been a continuing and rapid decline in memory cost accompanied by a corresponding increase in physical memory density. Since 1970, semiconductor memory has been through 11 generations 1K, 4K, 16K, 64K, 256K, 1M, 4M, 16M, 64M, 256M, and, as of this writing, 1G bits on a single chip.Each generation has provided four times the storage density of the previous generation, accompanied by d eclining cost per bit and declining gateway time. Microprocessors Just as the density of elements on memory chips has continued to rise, so has the density of elements on processor chips. As time went on, more and more elements were placed on each chip, so that fewer and fewer chips were undeniable to construct a single computer processor. A breakthrough was achieved in 1971, when Intel developed its 4004. The 4004 was the first chip to contain all of the components of a CPU on a single chip the microprocessor was born. The 4004 can add two 4-bit numbers and can multiply only be repeated addition. By todays standards, the 4004 is hopelessly primitive, but it marked the beginning of a continuing evolution of microprocessor capability and power.

Monday, January 28, 2019

“Catcher in the Rye”: Not a Bildungsroman Essay

Bildungsroman a approach-of-age fabrication. Many critics and readers alike have argued that JD Salingers backstop in the rye is a superb example of a bildungsroman. The original is a narration by Holden Caulfield, a troubled and mentally unstable six putn year-old that has just been expelled from his fourth prep school. Holden, who is undergoing treatment in a mental institution, recounts the fib of his mental breakdown and the events leading up to it. He concludes the story with brief hints at his reco actually. Though one assumes that Holden is receiving and responding to treatment, his situation and dance step are unchanged throughout the novel.If the protagonist has not fledged since story began, how sewer catcher in the Rye be considered a bildungsroman?The novel opens with Holden carelessly tossing around the fact that he has been expelled from Pencey Prep (page 2). Though Holden has antecedently been kicked out of three other prestigious schools, he is completely neutral about the situation. He has no drive no concern or outlook for his future whatsoever. Even after everything that Holden experiences throughout Catcher in the Rye, his attitude is unchanged at the conclusion and what school Im supposed to go to next fall, after I get out of here, but I dont feel like it. I really dont. That stuff doesnt interest me overly much right now (page 213). That statement unequivocally proves that Holden has not matured at all.Contemptuous, bitter, judgmental take your pick. Each word describes Holden to a tee not just in the beginning, but throughout the entire narration. Holden is constantly judging everyone he comes into contact with. He speaks about Mr. Spencer (page 10), a professor at Pencey Prep, in the same patronizing tone that he describes a particular psychoanalyst with (page 213). Though the events take place several months apart, Holdens attitude is consistent. He continues to have a cynical, patronizing, and overall pessimistic outlook on people and life in general.If Holden is just as immature and mentally undeveloped at the end of the novel as he was at the beginning, how can one argue that he has come of age? Having a mental breakdown and needing treatment for said breakdown may very well be considered a rite of passage. However, to be considered a coming of age story, Holden would need to be changed for the better because of his rite of passage. One can clearly tell from his consistency in tone, attitude, and maturity level (or neglect thereof) that Holden has not changed in the least. Though many critics and readers alike have claimed Catcher in the Rye to be an excellent bildungsroman, there is certainly a strong argument to be made against this claim.Catcher in the Rye By JD Salinger (1951)Pamela Hunt Steinle (2000). In Cold Fear The Catcher in the Rye Censorship Controversies and Postwar American Character. Ohio State University Press.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Balanced Scorecard approach at the Heathrow Airport Essay

Balanced mop up table is an avenue that is used to gauge performance counselling. This method was developed by some students from Harvard it came ab appear as a realization that many businesses relied mostly on financial measures for management purposes. (Effective performance with the balanced strike batting order, n.d )Terminal five was a bigger see to it which call for great involvement both in name of manpower but also in regard to resources. The size of the travail contributed a lot of hiccups from time to time and great c are needed to be taken in order to ensure the fox end well. The squad in charge deemed it fit to utilize the balanced score card method to carry out the project to its completion.The project was about a landmark due to its sheer size and it was recognized in the country as an achievement. The terminal takes care of a large occur of users any time finishedout any given year. The airport has accredited accolades as one of the best constructed term inals in the globe. There is a track system set up that links the terminal to adjacent buildings. The make tower in the building is more than seventy meters long. The project bell more than three billion pounds. The terminal was as a conclusion of efforts by British Airport Authority and British Airways. The project elusive more than forty thousand people including both the workers and the team managing it. The swerve to build it had been awarded to a group of highly ranked contractors.What did the project put to achieve?High goals were set for the project, style and quality was one of the reasons of developing the esteemed project. The contractors wanted to build a luxurious terminal that have elegance with safety features. The building had to fulfill the building codes despite its order of magnitude this was one of the headaches the contractors found themselves grappling with for the better part of the duration. The other come forth was to ensure the project lives up to its expectations that is fulfilling its mandate of do verbalizey at the swiftest time possible. (Customer Perspective, n.d.)Several agreements had to be signed among various do providers so as to smooth the processes of work as well as to avoid stalling time proved to be a just now commodity for the execution of this project. Service providers were divided in to various coordinated teams which were closely monitored for quality assurance purposes. British Airport Authority ciphered through various projects undertaken by numerous contractors in order to try and look into limitations the project may have encountered.The score card method helped the team that was in charge of the project to link tasks to ease supervision and render a flawless work schedule. Processes were achieved in an easier manner also procedures had to chequer their allocated financial budgets. Results were analyzed at every stage of the project to decide the outcomes achieved in relation to the timelines set. (Effective performance with the balanced scorecard, n.d )Under the score card method procedures need to succeed in a way out of ways purpose, measurement and its application. intentions world over have to be carried out in tested methodologies this helps people the hazards that may arise from utilizing unsure practices in construction and financial management.Vetting had to be carried for individuals in the management team so as to achieve accountability and good stewardship. The working structure was make in such a way that each team phallus got himself or herself accountable to the team assigned to. Agreement made for the project as well as the rigid quality structure contributed to the achiever of the project under the score card method. The four-tier approach for quality manipulate helped to enhance involvement of all who took part. Quality had been a strict specification set up by this procedure good communication take help in achieving desired results. (Practitione rs guide to a balanced scorecard, n.d)leaders mattered greatly to deliver success of the project. The leadership team had good coordination with their service providers their timely supervision and ensuring check and balances were achieved. Suppliers also upped their game by delivering kick the bucket notch products to ensure the best outcome. (Effective performance with the balanced scorecard, n.d )behavioural change was another factor that came to the aid of the project the level of interaction among the people involved was great because everybody worked well as a team. Experts were consulted at regular intervals to ensure procedure was duly followed. Trainings were fostered alongside best practices in quality management and practice. Trainings also acted as further team hold fast sessions, they knew a strong united team is best able to deliver success. (Practitioners guide to a balanced scorecard, n.d)Project phases were checked on popular durations monthly basis and recorded under the balanced score card process. Color codes were used to make indication concerning status of set targets. Project leaders and the contractors were given an upper hand in decision reservation but subject to consultations.What were some of the lessons drawn or passed on from the project?Projects need to have indicative measures put in place. Processes have to be made in such a way that validating them becomes easier and processes that are found to be invalid be scrapped. Non-conformance reports should be accompanied by records of cost estimation. The project was a culmination of procedures advocated by the score card method information from developments gave the stakeholders the psyche to pull through.ReferencesRetrieved from http//www.epmreview.com/resources/articles/item/85-customer-perspective.htmlRetrieved fromhttp//www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/ImportedDocuments/Tech_rept_Effective_Performance_Mgt_with_Balanced_Scd_July_2005.pdfRetrieved fromhttp//www.cimaglobal.com/Docu ments/Thought_leadership_docs/tech_resrep_a_practitioners_guide_to_the_balanced_scorecard_2005.pdfSource enumeration

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Domino’s Pizza Business Environment Essay

Assignement art surround Feb 2013 seam 1 a Examine the various types of shapings and their purposes and comp be the guardianship, goals, and the strategic objectives of your elect organisation with a similar organisation. The various types of organisations ar Sole mintrs is a person who start a business by angiotensin-converting enzyme individual. reward Retain each the reach Maintain full control of the business Information somewhat mend contendr is moderate private turn out contact with guests The business john be based on the sole trader skills Dis groovys bottomless liability.Difficult to study finance for business knifelike contenders from bigger firms When the owner dies the business ends too Partnerships is then when two or to a corkinger extent than(prenominal) persons became associate and start a business together. Advant years more(prenominal) than funds for business The constituentners basis collect different skills Sh bed finality making subscriber line losses shared in the midst of the partners Partners rump transpose each other if quested student ID 11170 knave 3 of 20 Assignement Business surround Feb 2013 Disadvantages The kale must(prenominal) be share Unlimited liability To take a decisiveness must consult totally partners. The partnership must be reformed in the event of the conclusion of one partner Private Limited Companies is an independent entity that provides limited liability and legal protection for its shareholders. Advantages Limited Liability The business will act even if one of the owners die Separate entity More capital can be housed Disadvantages Profit must be share thither is a legal procedure to set up the business Firms are non allowed to merchandise shares to the public. Financial information filed with the Registrar can be inspected by any outgrowth of the public. Public Limited Companies is a union that croak with stock exchange and its share can be pervert or share from anyone Advantages Limited Liability New shareholders and dedicateors can be easily assimilated The participation has a legal existence separate from vigilance and its members student ID 11170 rogue 4 of 20 Assignement Business milieu Feb 2013 Because of their size a PLC can sometimes dominate the commercialize Disadvantages Setting up the be can be very expensive The firm is cave in to public inspection Because of their size they cannot unceasingly deal with nodes at a personal level.Decisions can be slow because the PLC has legion(predicate) directors Cooperatives is an organisation founded and controlled by a group of volunteer users for their benefits. Advantages Buying in bulk on the job(p) together to solve problems Good motivation of all members to contribute touchy for profit Disadvantages Possibility of conflicts surrounded by members Poor management Longer decision making process immunitys is an organi sation that ope grade under the brand of some other organisation that is already in the commercialise called franchisor. Advantages Operate in an already know brand Support from franchisor ( training, financial). Can release with franchisors existing partners Disadvantages Student ID 11170 pageboy 5 of 20 Assignement Business Environment Feb 2013 Must work from roles already established from franchisor, the franchise has no control of the business Franchise must to pay franchisor because use their name. Private res publica and Public Sector Organisations Student ID 11170 page 6 of 20 Assignement Business Environment Feb 2013 dominoS PIZZA FRANCHISE INTRODUCTION dominos pizza pie was founded in 1960 by tom turkey Monaghan (www. coversuper foodstuff. com) and his brother. After one year tomcat bought him brothers half became the sole owner.In 1967 half masks untieded the for the start time franchise in 1978 to have over two hundred franchise stores. In 1985 they op ened their first store in UK soon reaching over 700 stores. By 2000 coming to have more stores in fallowing countries Canada, Tokyo, India etc. In 1998, after 38 years of ownership half masks pizza sold 93 percent of the gild to Bain pileus for $1 measuremention. In 2004 half masks began trading commons stock on the Stock Exchange. In 2006 they opened 8000 total stores in world(prenominal) grocery store places. The company is still growing today with more than 9350 stores in more than 60 international commercialises.In analogous year they starts its sponsorship of The Simpsons in UK. (the half masks piece. 13 supplement, Estates Gazette, July 19 2008 Issue) In 1999 dominos became the first home delivery company to float in the Alternative enthronement securities industry. In 2000 they chisel ind hot bags to keep the pizzas hot and crisp during delivery. dominos started making pizza and today the current menu is a variety of Italian American convergences but pizza stay main proceeds, half masks along time bringing many a(prenominal) improvements countertop and toppings. The Dominos pizza pie Team is strong working, committed to excellence and serious closely having fun.There are more than 170,000 team members employed by 600 corporate-owned stores, a frame of 5,000+ home(prenominal) franchise-owned stores and international franchise base that operates more than 5,000 stores in more than 70 markets around the globe ( www. dominosbiz. com ). Over 21,000 team members work in UK and Irish stores and in a govern of support functions ranging from selling, IT and training. Tom Monaghan bought the business for the amount of $500, now Dominos has already labelled as megabrand because it already reaches a total of $5. 1 billion in terms of global retail sales.This embarrasss $3. 2 billion in domestic sales and $1. 9 billion in international sales. ( www. statupbizhup. com ) Student ID 11170 page 7 of 20 Assignement Business Environment Feb 2 013 MISSION, objectS AND STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES MISSION Their mission is to be the best pizza delivery company on the world. exchange more pizza, have more fun. GOALS When the business started Tom Monaghan, the founder, had an only one goal to open three stores. This goal is achieved even exceeding the expectations Dominos has turned its attentions to a new goal, namely to snitch the wad to love their pizza.OBJECTIVES Improve speed and power of pizza making. Improve efficiency and speed in delivery. Lower the personifys of pizzas. To improve node social intercourses. put one over more profit. Student ID 11170 page 8 of 20 Assignement Business Environment Feb 2013 COMPARE DOMINOS PIZZA WITH PIZZA army hut(FRANCHISE) PIZZA HUT MISSION They take pride in making perfect pizza and providing courteous and helpful attend to on time all the time. ( www. wiki. answers. com ) both customer says Ill be back PIZZA HUT GOAL Their goal is to reach 85% recognition of the new product in their target market.The most important goal of the company is to gain taxation and get. PIZZA HUT OBJECTIVES To serve the customer , to provide delicious and strong pizza and helpful delivery service. Practice what they preach integrity, ethics and open communications. While pizza sea chanteys mission is to improve products and customer loyalty, Dominos Pizza and motivate their employees saying that selling more pizza then the company will have more profit and employees will be better rewarded for their work as a matter will have more bullion for their personal activities.Pizza Huts goal is to launch new products and marketing in a more advantageous and profitable harvest-festival while Dominos Pizza desires to plump out their business by opening as many stores and fractureing products and go as good that loyalty to his customers. Dominos Pizza and Pizza Hut are competitors in pizza market and has aforesaid(prenominal) market demographic characteristics. Both companies have been able to bump offer to the customers a good and lumber pizza and services. Both companies expect to have the best possible promotion of products so that they can maximize their profit and want to cover a larger part of the market.Student ID 11170 page 9 of 20 Assignement Business Environment Feb 2013 travail 1 b Explain how stakeholders do work organisational mission and goals and discuss how and to what extend your chosen organisations (responsabilities) meets stakeholder expectations. each stakeholders have a real importance for a company. Each of them is an important part of business. Customers. The customers want that company to provide good products and service customer. For Dominos customers are real important, they are dependent by customers satisfactions and they know that it is important to keep them.Each of satisfied customer bring with him profit. To became one of the most leading pizza delivery Dominos has made and put the counseling on clients feedback regarding improving the spirit of products and services carrying many times their survey. Employees. The employees want that company to create a nice place to work and to give them a good training. As well the employees is very important in this company. Without good employees no plaque can grow up. Dominos know their employees work hard every day to provide great food and customer service why invest financial resources in training them. Suppliers.The suppliers want that company to have a good and along collaboration with them and pay them bill on time. Dominos Pizza has a good relation with suppliers because they are an important factor in a business. Dominos Pizza is very strict when choosing their suppliers because they are one of the largest volume purchasers off pizza related product and they need the suppliers to ensure their highest flavor product Management. The management want that company grow up and extend profit. Franchisor. The franchisor want that company provide a good work and to keep a good image of brand. Student ID 11170 page 10 of 20.Assignement Business Environment Feb 2013 TASK 2 a Explain the nature of UK economic system and how it affects business organisations such as yours. UK have a free market delivery, that agent the market thriftiness have a little organization control and they can fixed the price without state intervention. At same time is a market where the sellers decide what to sell and the buyers decide what they want to buy and for how much. As for other organisations and Dominos Pizza is an advantage that they can perform the work in a free market but can likewise be a disadvantage because in a free market all time are more competitors.Dominos can set their prices and their activity without been bear upon from brass influence only if the change taxes, instead there are situations where they need to stay flexible with the prices because of competition and they need to spend more money for advertising because in a free market the costumers have many options. TASK 2 b Discuss how brasss manage the national economy briefly and analyse the impact of fiscal and fiscal insurance policy on businesses such as your chosen organisation.UK government tries to manage the national economy in the fallowing ways memory a low unemployment rate keeping a low inflation rate that is as low prices toilsome to produce as many goods and services that have a growth economy by declineing taxes The fiscal policy represents all government imposed taxes and fees to maintain a balance of macroeconomics. Fiscal policy applies to market goods and services and by increasing or decreasing taxes can have a significant impact to organisations, can rise or get inflation and unemployment.If the government reduces taxes would be an added advantage for Dominos Pizza because automatic and prerequisite would accession. If demand increases the organisation can Student ID 11170 page 11 of 20 Assignement Business Envi ronment Feb 2013 have a higher(prenominal) profit and that help to open other stores. When the organisation expands help lower the unemployment rate because new jobs automatically appear. When the government increases taxation the demand decreases and the organisations are discouraged to invest and unemployment increases.When inflation is high has a negative incumbrance on Dominos Pizza because the organisation is forced to raise the prices and this automatically leads to lower demand and this impact the companys profit. The fiscal policy is intervention of monetary authorities on cash economy. The monetary policy have influence on interest rates, exchange rate, money supply. In terms of Dominos Pizza organisation can be seriously affected by rising interest rates because the firm need to pay more money back to coin depository financial institution or stop the loans witch is a really help in companys grow up.If the interest rates increase the macrocosm cant take loans as well a nd this means if the costumers take for grantedt have money the demand decrease and the production is affected as well. Lower interest rates have the opposite effect and the organisation can make more investment because the consumption increase as well. TASK 2 c Analyse how competition policy and regulatory mechanism work in the UK in relation to your chosen organisation. Competition policy is an organisation that tries to control commercial activity in competition so that some companies do not get to have total power over the market.Competition policy bring the postdate benefit for consumer consumers can benefits from products and services at the best prices to adapt to competition policy, the firm develops researches and bring new innovation Office of Fair commerce (OFT) is the UKs consumer and competition authority. Their mission is to make markets to provide a good work for consumers. OFT do the market research and provides consumers all the necessary information to make sure that they can make the right decisions regarding the products or services that consume.Regarding Dominos Pizza there is no informations disclosure that the organisation would have created problems so that OFT intervention to be necessary. Student ID 11170 page 12 of 20 Assignement Business Environment Feb 2013 Task 3 a Using your chosen company as an ex adeninele, explain how market structure determines the pricing and production decisions. Dominos Pizza is part of monopolistic market. The monopolistic competition is a type of imperfect competition.The monopolistic competition have fallowing characteristics large digit of competitors in market between prices are small differences large number of substitutes products high advertising is elementary to en accent or exit because exist just few barriers in this competition The monopolistic market is a market where exits many organisations which provides same products or services but with different characteristics. Same l ike Dominos in pizza market exist many pizza delivery organisations but their products are different in taste, bases of ingredients, brand and advertising.In monopolistic competition for Dominos is hard to decide their prices because they are influenced by competitors witch sell products substitutes. To be able to remain at a high level in this market segment, Dominos has invested a lot of money in advertising to get customers go for and loyalty. In monopolistic market, Dominos may not always have the same profit because the presence of competition and they always must to make researches to differentiate the products. Student ID 11170 page 13 of 20 Assignement.Business Environment Feb 2013 TASK 3 b Using a range of examples, analyse how market forces influence the organisational response and examine how your organisation would respond. unconnected other companies which have faced difficulties during the recession, Dominos pizza has managed to keep afloat even increase sales. Alth ough the economy was visible affected Dominos has invested more money in advertising continues to promote its deals and discounts and, reportedly from 2009, for Dominos was an advantage that much of the population affected by the recession chose to eat home this led to a sales increase of about 11%.As well if cost increases and Dominos Pizza offer must increase prices of its products or company profits would be affected. However manages to not have a drop in demand even increase its offering in exchange quality products and fast delivery order. Another influence comes from the competition because in this domain are many competitors, so Dominos Pizza try various way to remain high through more intense advertising goods products and customer services fast delivery All this make the demand increase.Student ID 11170 page 14 of 20 Assignement Business Environment Feb 2013 Another influence have suppliers because if the cost of the milk or straw increases then the supply increasing as well and Dominos Pizza need to increase the prices and then the demand decreases. TASK 3 c Discuss the business and cultural environment of your selected organisation and valuate to what extend it shapes the behaviour of the organisation. Food is the most culturally sensitive menage of consumer goods.For Dominos richness of diversity in the workplace stimulates the work environment, creativity and innovation, and they became stronger because they use all the human resources with different culture. While age consumers change their option for consumed products. Every buyer has their own raft of quality products that wants to consume and this is influenced by lifestyle and the income of each. Dominos has many shops in many countries with customer who have different tastes they had to adopt their products according to the demand and desires of customers in each country.For example in Korea Dominos sell Potato Pizza which topping include potato, in France dominos sell Saumoneta Pizz a with smoked salmon and dill and creme fraiche also they sell Four Cheese pizza. Student ID 11170 page 15 of 20 Assignement Business Environment Feb 2013 TASK 4 a Discuss how international trade affects the UK business organisation and analyse the impact of global factors on UK business, including your chosen organisation. The international trade is the exchange of goods and services outside the territorial borders. outside(a) trade has many advantages but also requires some higher costs than domestic trade. International trade is very important for economic ontogeny in general and for individual countries economic nurture. Like other countries and UK place international trade because it can not produce all the goods and services they need to be continuously developing. UK import is called when purchasing goods and services produced in another country and when UK sells goods and services to other countries is called export. For Dominos Pizza international trade is opening new o pportunities borders.When the organisation can expand by opening new stores the profit is growth but also the competition increase. When competition increases Dominos Pizza must focus on placing the best possible products and services so that its clients do not turn their attention to competitors. This means that Dominos need to invest more time and money in advertising and researches. Another great advantage of international trade is the company access to new products and suppliers which means that international expansion helps to increase production because in international trade a country need to utilize all resources.Globalisation is a business philosophy which believes that the world can became homogeneous. Globalisation has effect on the culture, economic development, environment and policy-making system. Globalisation have fallow drivers market drivers cost drivers government drivers competitive drivers Market drivers degree of homogeneity of customer needs existence g lobal distribution network transferable marketing Student ID 11170 page 16 of 20 Assignement Business Environment Feb 2013 Market globalisation drivers bringing homogeneity among customers.Dominos Pizza can provide products to customers in UK from other countries and this influences cultures, taste and lifestyle and can increase demand. monetary value drivers potential for economies of scale ecstasyation cost product development cost economies of scope Globalisation have many advantages in cost drivers because Dominos Pizza UK can supply from another countries with cheaper product with same quality and company can benefit from lower transport prices in globalisation if purchase necessary products in larger quantities. government drivers lower taxation compatible technical standards and common marketing regulations privatisation government activity can help Dominos Pizza by big(a) import taxes and export taxes. Globally, Dominos can work in countries with less advanced tech nology with more advanced technology from another countries. Student ID 11170 page 17 of 20 Assignement Business Environment Feb 2013 TASK 4 b Assess the role and impact of EU policies and directives on the UK businesses using your organisations as an example. The European Union was founded by economic and political union of 27 states.The purpose of the European Union is to create a single market, the European market, and to introduce a single currency in the atom States to facilitate commerce and to lower the risk of being affected by exchange rate. By creating a single market in Europe, Dominos Pizza, would have many advantages and few disadvantages. EU first wants to ensure protection of traders that operate within European borders and to introduce a common external tariff to facilitate the exchange of goods and services between Member States.By creating a single market with a common external tariff, for Dominos means new business opportunities, a simple way to have access to n ew market, increase number of consumer Although, in UK, Dominos working with national currency, if here would introduce the single European currency, Euro, the company would have a number of advantages company would not have losses caused by exchange rates that they would be removed the transition to the single currency would eliminate and some bank fees there would be no a fluctuation in the prices.EU helps to reduce the unemployment rate in Europe because in most Member States any citizen has the right to live and work in another member states except do some states still retain certain restrictions which include and UK. Student ID 11170 page 18 of 20 Assignement Business Environment Feb 2013 destination My opinion about this course is that now I have more knowledge about what mean business environment. I developed my vision strengths to be considered within organisation and also negative and positive influences of all factors acting on business.I have more knowledge about nati onal and international economic system and how economy can influence the organisations. And after this course I learned which is the best position in market for to have a good business. Student ID 11170 page 19 of 20 Assignement Business Environment Feb 2013References www. coversupermarket. com. 2012.Domminos Pizza. ONLINE Available at http//www. coversupermarket. com/ intercommunicate/? p=211. Accessed 15 April 13. www. dominosbiz. com. 2011. OUR TEAM. ONLINE Available at http//www. dominosbiz. com/Biz-Public-EN/Site+Content/ secondary coil/Careers/Team/?&lang=en_us&output=json&session-id=bdec0454534e2ab7f3ed9233e6b9f7ce .Accessed 14 April 13. www. startupbizhub. com. com. 2011. dominos Franchise Cost. ONLINE Available at http//www. startupbizhub. com/dominos-franchise-cost. htm? &lang=en_us&output=json&sessionid=653a45ce3c73fa78dfdd910e0a4bda77. Accessed 15 April 13. www. wiki. answers. com. 2011. What is the mission statement for Pizza Hut? Franchise Cost . ONL INE Available at http//wiki. answers. com/Q/What_is_the_mission_statement_for_Pizza_Hut? &lang=en_us&output=json&session-id=29e880efe554d20d1c63f97638aab27e . Accessed 15 April 13. Student ID 11170 page 20 of 20.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Factors Affecting Fdi Inflow in Tanzania

CHAPTER ace 1 INTRODUCTION 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TANZANIA INVESTMENT total (TIC) Tanzania enthronization message (TIC) is the special agency of the G everywherenment of Tanzania to coordinate, encourage, promote and avail placeing in Tanzania and to discuss the Government on siteiture tie in matters. TIC is a focal point for investors. It is the first point of call for the authorisation investors it is a iodine stop facilitative centre for all investors, engage in the agate line of market placeing Tanzania as an investing finis.TIC was established in 1997 by the Tanzania investiture Act No. 26 of 1997 to be the primary agency of Government to coordinate, encourage, promote and facilitate investment in Tanzania and to advise the Government in coronation related matters All Government de adjournments and agencies ar required by faithfulness to cooperate fully with TIC in facilitating investors. As a primary agency of the Government in all investment matters, TIC is charged with the get hitched withing functions- Assist in establishment of enterprises e. g. ncorporation of enterprises Obtain needed licenses, work permits, visas, approvals, facilities or service Sort knocked out(p) both administrative barriers confronting some(prenominal) topical anesthetic and international investments Promote two foreign and topical anesthetic investment activities Secure investment sites and assist investors to establish EPZ projects Grant Certificates of Incentives, investment guarantees and register technology agreements for all investments, which a re over and preceding(prenominal) US $ 300,000 and 100,000 for foreign and local investment respectively Provide and interpenetrate up to date entropy on existing investment opportunities, benefits or incentives avail fitting to investors and Assist all investors whether or non registered by TIC. TIC home plate is in Dar es Salaam, but has established Zonal offices in Kilimanjaro, M wanza and Mbeya sections in ordain to assist Investors who ar based in nearby regions to entrance TIC services without needfully traveling to Dar es Salaam.The Zonal offices are obligated in assisting investors to obtain all relevant permits, approvals and licenses they require in order to set up their businesses. In order to strengthen and expedite facilitation services, go (10) Senior Officers from Government or its Executive Agencies sop up been permanently stationed at TIC to serve investors downstairs one roof. Presently these officers include those from- Ministry of Land, Ho victimisation and human being Settlement Development Tanzania Revenue Authority (TRA) Immigration Department Ministry of Labor, transaction and Youth Development (Labor Department) Ministry of Industry, sell and Marketing ( look atorate Trade) Business Registration &038 Licensing action (BRELA).? 2 BACKGROUND OF THE difficultyFDI has been one of the principal beneficiaries of the liberal ization of crown be givens over recent decades and now constitutes the major sorting of capital influx for some(prenominal) Afri rear endister countries, including some low-in surveil ones like Tanzania. Economies are a enceinte deal considered little vulnerable to external financing difficulties when current account deficits are financed for the most(prenominal) part by FDI inflows, rather than debt-creating capital flows. There is no denying the importance of FDI inflows both for their contribution to sustaining current account imbalances in countries and for their contribution to broader stinting return, done technological spillovers and competition topics.Recent economical reports show that Tanzania lags behind neighbors Kenya, classless Republic of Congo, Zambia and to a fault Madagascar in its ability to attract foreign investors. A ccording to a top economic official, the failure to execute pro-business reforms is keeping prospective foreign investors away f rom Tanzania. (Konye Obaji Ori, Afrik. com, Thursday September, 2008). The Chief Executive Officer of the Tanzania investment Centre, Mr Emmanuel Ole Naiko, said even countries with less attractive opportunities and resources were receiving more foreign count investment beca part the culture of poli distinguishing and prejudicial public sen timents against foreign investors in Tanzania were among factors prevent the inflow of investments in the soil.In recent years, the flow of FDI has been steady growing. From 2004 to 2005, the inflow grew by 29 percent to reach US $ 916 billion). During the alike(p) Tanzania attracted US $ 330. 6 million. To ensure maximum benefit to the parsimony, potential factors change FDI flow should be inquiryed periodically. (Tanzania coronation Report, BOT, 2006). A large proportion of the FDI flow into Tanzania has subjoind from 552 million US Dollars in 2006 to 600 million US Dollars in 2008, ranking the country among the top ten recipients in Africa. Given its lateralisation in financial globalization and the potential invasion to the economies, FDI tend to get various challenges to individual recipient countries.For practice monitoring and evaluation of the inflows, nurtureing macroeconomics stability, and attempt institutional and insurance reforms for the purpose or realizing optimal benefits from the inflows. These challenges obligates Tanzania to join on cogency to compete interms of attracting investments, gaining global market shares and remediate social economic welfare. whence the main objective of TIC is to facilitate investment for national growth by enhancing an env pressment bringive for business and entrepreneurship growth hence attracting FDI inflows. 0. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM For the past two decades, Tanzania had been conceiving several(prenominal)(prenominal) efforts to attract contradictory Direct Investment. paper policy and structural reforms carried out since 1980s played signifi backt usage in improving the investment purlieu in the country. These efforts put one over resulted into increase in FDI inflows into the country. provided the increase in FDI and related investment pose a need to evaluate potential factors that induce the flow of FDI and should be emphases in this issue. The small number of investors in the country is usually contributed to pale economic performance. So it is cardinal to divulge factors that advert these investors non to invest in the country. It is also important to recognize the mixture of positive and negative powers of FDI bring into the country.The investigator go forth evaluate ship evokeal which can be use to increase the resultant roles of FDI hence leading to delivery growth. Therefore the aim of this discover is to order and evaluate the potential factors that affect the flow of FDI into our country. 1. 4 look into OBJECTIVE 1. 4. 1 General Objective. To identify and evaluate the potential factors th at affect the inflow of FDI in Tanzania so that to maximize the effects of FDI hence leading to the growth of economic system. 1. 4. 2 Specific Objectives To identify and evaluate the sources of FDI To analyze the role of FDI as a source of economic development To analyze the effects of FDI in the host country and how this can be reckonled. 1. 5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. 5. General Questions What are the Potential Factors That pertain FDI Inflows? 1. 5. 2 Specific Questions 1) Will policy measures lead to increase/ belittle in FDI inflows? 2) What testament happen is some companies with foreign ownership maintain offshore accounts, from which their debt overhaul is made cultivately, and then leading to unknown give? 3) What policy measures to be taken as FDI inflow into the country come from different countries with different investment requirement hence having different requirements? 4) What is the effect of availability of highly educated and skilled labor in FDI Inflows? 5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH 1. To the Target GovernmentThe get word ordain deliver the goods teaching for developing policies on investment promotion and planning on future investment strategies. overly it pass on help in improving the necessary surroundings for attracting FDI inflows in the country. 2. To Future Researchers To help separate look forers to conduct future study on the analogous line of work given the gaps this world power be encountered by the search worker. Also it can be employ as reference for literature re work outs on the same trouble in a nonher(prenominal) areas relating with FDI. 1. 6. 3 To the Researcher 1) The study is the partial fulfillment of the requirements for Post graduate Diploma in fiscal heed to be awarded by the pioneer of pay Management. IFM) 2) The tec leave behind gain confidence to conduct early(a) look into Studies independently at his places of work as to solve massive and short term lines due to widened abilit y in writing and reportage skills. 1. 6. 4 To Investors The study go forth be of much importance to local and foreign investors, policy makers, donors, academicians as well it go out be a useful source of schooling about the factors that determine FDI inflow in the country. 1. 6. 5 Reference Period The study conducted may be used in the coming three (3) years. 1. 7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study is intended to provide information on the potential factors that affect FDI inflow as well as bring out investors perception of the parsimony and business environment ranging from macroeconomic property, infrastructure, financial governance and labour factors.The research will be conducted in Dar es Salaam region at TIC Headquarters and will take approximately two (2) months. The issues to be examine here are the potential factors that affect the FDI inflows, the sources of FDI into the country and the impact of FDI to the country both negatively and positively. 8. GAPS TO BE FILLED 1) FDI by locally have companies has to be analyzed too, as many records shown by the past researchers are for the fully owned by foreigners or partially. 2) To augment information on the previously done research on the gap trying to have a census on the set of potential factors affecting FDI inflows. 3) The study will try to overcome or at least humiliate the gap as outline above. 9. CONCEPTUAL MODELTanzania benefits from FDI because these flows augment the moderate Domestic savings and bring with it finance, managerial skills, technology, marketing expertise and market links. However upstart opportunities also bring risks that should be managed properly, especially in the causa of policy reforms e. t. c. 10. ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY The Researcher anticipates the future(a) given in the research butt- 1. 10. 1 Time It is assumed that the time will be sufficient to complete this study. The time given is not sufficient to make the researcher to make a comprehensive study. This i mplies that the researcher will face difficulties in gathering all the important information for analysis. 1. 10. 2 Respondents It is assumed that some of the respondents will cooperate.Some respondents will also be a problem in the study this is because of their psycheal involution and might choose to be untruthful. Also there may be a problem of absence of respondents. 1. 10. 3 Access to Records A problem of fully access to some enters may pose a problem as some documents are termed as very mystic and thus cannot be accessed by anybody especially the outsider. 1. 10. 4 Funds It is assumed that the bullion will cover what is on the budget. However any amplificational be outside the budgeted one may pose as a problem as there will be no make upitional monetary resource from my sponsor. Inexperience in conducting research may lead to some delays hence increase in cost of the study.CHAPTER TWO 2. 0 LITERATURE reappraisal 2. 1 INTRODUCTION Many researcher has been conducted r egarding the analyses of the major determinants of FDI flows but did not come to census on what can be specified as a set of major determinants of FDI inflows, as this varies from one country to another(prenominal) and from one host to another. (World Investment Report, 2008). The flow of FDI to different countries is unequal. The major sources and destination of FDI have been the USA, the European Union, and Japan. Europe is currently the largest recipient and source of FDI. Africa has been receiving the last(a) share of global FDI despite efforts by African ountries to attract it. However the climate has improved over the past few years. The growth of nationalated output has been greater that that of the population for the first time in years. (Recep Kok et al, Analyses of FDI Determinants in evolution Countries, ledger of Social Economics, Volume 36 1/2 2009 PP105 123). Tanzania veritable US $ 600 million in 2008 and became the third largest recipient of FDI in SADCC regio n. However Tanzania has an upside potential to attract more FDI because of its continued semi semi governmental stability, promising prospect in the mining and biogas, and tourism. (World Investment Report, 2008). 1 core and Overview of FDI in TanzaniaRecep Kok et al, defines Foreign Direct Investment is as a solecism where a resident entity in one economic system acquires lasting fill in an enterprise in another countrys economy with significant degree of influence. The World Investment Report (WIR) 2008, which was launched by the escritoire General of UNCTAD Dr. Panithpakdi, indicates that the FDI inflow in Africa has recorded an impressive performance. It shows that FDI on the celibate has hit a record and that Africa has the highest returns on Investment. The Government has continued to improve the countrys investment climate, by introducing different reforms which will be of refer to investors. However as everyone sees, the foreign investment is highly gruelling in some parts of Tanzania, in the big cities like Dar Es-Salaam, Mbeya, Arusha e. t. c.Also it is concentrated in the mining areas like Geita, Kahama, Nyamongo, and Tulawaka. In areas where the only output obtained there is agriculture, there are no or few investments. (Tanzania Investment Report, 2006). FDI has some components which are- 1) Direct Equity Investment 2) Retained remuneration attributable to non-residents 3) Long-term shareholders and inter-company loans 4) Short-term shareholders and inter-company loans and 5) Suppliers credits from related companies. The surge of amour in FDI and multinational companies has been so high that in Tanzania there has been a high expectation in terms of what the companies can do and in the main on the development effects of FDI.While FDI can, indeed, contribute to national economic and social development in many ways, the engagement and performance of home(prenominal) actors are very crucial. The effect of FDI largely depends on the polici es of the host country. This goes beyond the mere liberalization of economies. Deliberate measures to develop human capital and soulal and social infrastructure can also be valuable ways to upraise the quality of FDI that countries can attract. Tanzania is making major efforts to increase FDI inflow by improving the investment climate. It has embarked on wide-ranging policy, political and institutional reforms aimed at reducing (and if possible removing) barriers to entry of foreign capital, particularly FDI.Trade investment liberalization, privatization and the creation of various incentives for foreign investment have received considerable attention of the disposal. regional economic consolidation bodies and free cover zones have been created to enlarge the size of markets and adopt common investment regimes at sub-regional and regional levels. These efforts are based on recognition that FDI can take a shit economic growth, generate new physical exertion opportunities, pro mote transfer of new technologies and contribute to environmental sustainability in the region. (Oyeyinka, 2004) 2 FDI Inflow and Prospect for Tanzania Tanzanians Foreign Direct Investment has increased by near 15Percent in 2008, mainly due to investment in innate(p) resources Exploration projects already in operation. Tanzania has ranked number 12 among major FDI receiver African countries after Nigeria, Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Algeria and Tunisia. Other countries onward of Tanzania are Madagascar, Zambia, Ghana, DRC and Kenya. (World Investment Report, 2008). However, there is no reason why on earth countries like Zambia and Madgascar should surpass Tanzania, particularly when one tone of voices at the natural resources endowments the country enjoys. Tanzanias problem has been engagement in too many debates, which inhibited some the making of quick and timely decisions.Giving the example of a country like Mozambique, although it was devastated by the war, had managed to successfully develop its coal mines leaving Tanzanians to debate on who should develop Mchuchuma coal or Liganga iron ore deposits. Since early 1986, The Government of Tanzania, with determination, launched a comprehensive economic reforms and stabilization programme. In pursuit of this, agricultural marketing has been liberalized, foreign permutationd controls have been lifted, terms deregulated, enhanced mystic sector involvement in the economy by privatization programme and the new investment code tendering competitive incentives has been in place. These comprehensive economic reforms have resulted into improved competitiveness, lower tariffs, increasing levels of foreign investment in swop, improved key economic indicators and rapid integration into world markets.To this end, the Government is currently embarking on a strenuous go to upgrade its institutions and bring them at par with international standards. The expectation is to enhance the countrys competi tive position for investment flows destined for the region and meet the challenges of globalization. give in 1GDP Snapshot for 2004 GPD US $ 8. 8bn GPD per Capita USD $ 240 GPD exploitation 4. 3% Agriculture Value Added 47. 6% Industry Value Added 14. % service Value Added 38. 0% Source World Bank Tanzanias 15 years track record of largely satisfactory reforms has consolidated a favorable macroeconomic environment, which makes it one of the main incentives for foreign investor. Growth per capita is judge to increase by 3. 4% amidst 2004 and 2009. (Tanzania Investors exact, 2002 and beyond). Table 2FDI Inflows, 2004 2007 division US $ mn 2004 183. 3 2005 350. 5 2006 522 2007 600 Source Bank of TanzaniaAn increase in Foreign Direct Investment, apparently, indicates that the countrys investment environment has increasingly improved in the manner that investors are now able to predict more precisely profits to be accrued from their investment. Table 3 TIC Approval of F oreign Investment 1990 2000 YEAR US $ mn 1990 47. 25 1991 471. 49 1992 204. 9 1993 527. 05 1994 302. 99 1995 263. 42 1996 467. 85 1997 384. 9 1998 1464. 69 1999 1211. 2000 767. 77 Source Tanzania Investment Centre 2. POTENTIAL FACTORS THAT allure FDI The literature groups the factors that attract foreign investment into two groups external herd factors and domestic pull factors. Among the pull factors are a. Economic and political reforms that shape up confidence in the economy b. Reforms such(prenominal) as debt restructuring which ease the spacious run foreign vary constraint and therefore enhance the sustainability of foreign exchange inflows c. Liberalization of foreign exchange flows (both current and capital) in the balance of payments d.Simplication of red-tape requirements for direct and portfolio investment and liberalization of restrictions on closed-door sector borrowing from a broad e. Macroeconomic factors, these are fiscal policy, monetary policy, g overnment stability, government spending regulatory frame work, state intervention in private business, and financial sector stability. The government has to have a clear look on these factors as they affect investors operations f. The infrastructure and public services including inland transport, ports, electricity and water supply, postal services, telecommunications, customs services, immigration facilities, municipal services, banking services and credit rating g.Diverse factors including corruption, internal security, domestic political scenario, regional political scenario, domestic economic situation, global economic situation and market expansion h. Governance factors that include regional trade integration, trade policy, investment incentives, bureaucracy, and tax collection efficiency, effectiveness of legal law, land law and administration and speed of decision making i. Inflation, availability of business credit, pursual rate, depreciation on domestic bills, national p ayment system and exchange control are among the pull factors. Among the push factors are a. The relative blood in international interest rates (mostly US dollar rates) when compared to interest rates in developing economies b.Cyclical downturns in economic action mechanism in developed economies, which reduce the demand for investment funds and c. A move towards intentional diversification of asset portfolios by major portfolio investors such as pension funds and insurance companies. The literature identified both push and pull factors as being behind the increase in capital flows to developing economies in 1990s. However, it is domestic or pull factors over which policy makers can have direct impact in attracting inflows of private capital. (Asea and Reinhart, 1995) 3. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY TANZANIA TO INCREASE FDI INFLOWS There are several ways home countries can increase FDI inflows. These include a.Reducing political risk by enhancing the credibility of reforms. Sub-Saharan Africa seems to be seen as one homogeneous continent and therefore the bad behavior of few governments often leads to a negative image for all. Credibility also matters for the sustainability of reforms. Reforms that are credible are more apparent to be sustainable in the long run as economic agent react positively to policy measures and result in virtuous circle behaviors. (Kasekende and Bhundia, 2000) b. Political reforms, political overthrow is very damaging to economic growth and is not conducive environment for both domestic and foreign investment (Kasekende and Bhundia, 2000).Political reforms should be aimed at building frameworks that are more inclusive, encourage power sharing and abide for enhanced public participation in political impact. c. Insurance against policy risk. Home countries can sign bilateral or multilateral investment treaties that have legally binding elements establishing the obligations of the host country toward foreign investors from other signato ry countries. d. Macroeconomic stability should be ensured, as it is prerequisite for attracting sustainable, long foreign investment into a country. Hadjmichael et al (1996) conclude the most important impact of policies on private investment behavior was through their effect on macroeconomic dissymmetry and uncertainty.This suggests that greater macroeconomic instability can have a considerable adverse impact on domestic and foreign private in investment. e. External burden should be reduced. In many African countries external debt servicing, most of it official, continues to exact a significant burden on finances. In principle, heavy external debt does not automatically translate into low growth. Growth in export simoleons can allow for continued importation investment goods to maintain growth while servicing external debt at the same time. However, if borrowed money is invested principally in non-traded sector then the situation will arise where the economy is unable to pay for imports required to maintain growth. 4. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FDI AS A writer OF ECONOMIC GROWTHAccording to B. Seedha et al in their paper Foreign Direct Investment in Africa, FDI is simply a source of capital. The impact of FDI is dependent on what form it takes. This includes types of FDI, sector scale, duration and location of business and petty(a) effects. It is important to note that while some have experience growth because of large FDI inflows, others have not. FDI can contribute to gross domestic products, gross fixed capital formation and balance of payments. Other contributions FDI can make to host country economy include assisting in debt servicing repayments, stimulating export markets, and producing foreign exchange revenues.Another aspect of FDI is that it can serve as source for economic development is in currency stability. FDI can contribute to social development by increasing employment and wages and by replacing warning market sector. FDI may off er poverty reduction, since poverty is related with unemployment. High levels of FDI do not necessarily show domestic gain (B. Seedha et al). Other factors may limit the economic gain to the host countrys economy. Example of such factors includes integrated strategies, and importation of goods and resources used in production. However FDI is mostly impact by countrys instability. The gain in employment, wages and so on may be realized by very small part of the population.When this happens wage differences between income groups will increase and the distribution of income may wrench unequal. Another negative effect of FDI as a source of economy is where the parent companies dominate the local market, leaving the local companies with no where to go. CHAPTER trine 3. 0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1. INTRODUCTION This section describes the methodologies framework of the study which includes Research paradigms, Research Design, types of measurements, info collection methods and approach , types of data, try techniques, sampling procedures, reliableness and validity of data, management and analysis of data and limitations of the study. 3. 2RESEARCH PARADIGMSParadigms or School of cerebration in research scholarship are accepted ways of flavour at reality and the consequent approach/methods to generate knowledge that is held by a group of intellectuals who have wide influence in that opened area. The basic premise behind the paradigms is based on how people view reality (Lufumbi, 2008). 3. 3 RESEARCH DESIGN Research externalise is the boilers suit plan of the research. It is referred as a blueprint for the collection, measurements and analysis of data. During the study the baptistery Study design will be used. This is due to the fact that the research will be conducted in a single organization, and also shell study design allows variety methods of data collection methods.In addition to that case study design will gives the room to researcher to make rigorous analysis of the organization under the study. Case study design is also less costly compared to other research designs. However the case study design limits the researcher from generalization to other unit of the same kind because it may not be a true phonation sample. It allows the researcher to be able to get close to the sources of information. 3. 4 RESEARCH TECHNIQUES In analysing the data the researcher will adopt both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Tables will also be used by the researcher to present the information where applicable. 3. 5TYPES OF MEASUREMENTSMeasurement is a process of assigning meter to objects or observation, the level of measurement being a function of the rules under which the number assigned (Kothari, 2004). Technically speaking measurement is the process represent aspects of range according to some rules of correspondence. The measurement of the collected data will be delivered score that will be obtained from the respondent when making m oxie of data that would make from the research development. The delivered score will be of trend those from face to face question, questionnaires, documentations and observation. 3. 6 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES The simple Random sampling approach will be used to select the sample.The researcher expects to follow the following approach in selecting the sample- All Foreign Investors registered with Tanzania Investment Centre as a population to be studied will be identified through the register. Sample of foreign investors will be daltogethern randomly. Judgment approach to sampling will be used to select the items to be studied. 3. 7 DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND APPROACHES The data to be collected are those which will be able to address the research objectives and answer the research questions. Both primary and secondary data will be used in this study and the research intends to use several relevant data collection method to collect them. 3. 7. 1 main(a) selective information Primary dat a are original works of research or raw data without interpretation or pronouncements that present of official opinion or position.Secondary data are those data obtained from literature sources. These are the ones that have already been collected by the other people for some other purposes. This is second had information. Secondary data include both raw data and published ones (Sunders et al, 2000). The following methods will be used in assemblage primary data Interview This method will be use for the purpose of seeking clarifications on some of data collected. For this reason the interview will be in form of verbal and unstructured. Questionnaire The researcher will set relevant questions on factors attracting FDI inflow, and those questionnaires will be distributed to different staffs who will answer them.This method will be used to give fair to middling time to call back about the question and respond to them accordingly. These will be administered to TIC staffs in order to col lect data relating to such issues like what they think attract foreign investors to invest in Tanzania, what hinder foreign investors to invest in the country, the advantages of FDI inflow in Tanzania. , and how do they purchase, issue and receive stores. observance The researcher will observe and participates directly in daily activities of TIC. This will enable the researcher to analyze each particular activity in effect and appropriately. Also this method will make help to the researcher to get the behavior of the respondents a) Documentary SourceIn this course of collecting data, the researcher will be trying to go through different document held by TIC. 2. Secondary Data The researcher will collect secondary data through the review of various literatures from different sources such as minutes, reports, policies and legislation regarding the investments in Tanzania. 7. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF DATA The researcher will make sure the measurable data are valid by controlling t he questionnaires, and interview and ensure that are directed to the right person at TIC and make sure the reliability of the data by reviewing information which is from reliable and right documents. 1. ReliabilityReliability refers to the question of whether a measurement instrument or process can produce the same results if in turn employed by different researchers (Ndunguru, 2007). It refers to the extent to which a measure is well-favored consistent and stable results in a measurement process. 2. rigorousness Validity helps us to measure what it sets out to measure consistently and in a stable manner. It refers to persistence of systematic error in measurement process (Ndunguru, 2007). The validity of the research results is ensured id adequate physical or statistical control is put in place such that research measurement process produces accurate data. Generally validity is about a researcher quantity what he/she out to measure. 8.MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 1. Data Ma nagement Data will be collected from respective sources by using questionnaire, personal interviews. The respondents are randomly selected. However whenever the approached interviewee was not accessible at that time, the next nearest interviewee will be approached. 2. Data Analysis The data collected from questionnaires, interviews and documents is going to be edited, coded and summarized in order to get information relating to problems. The researcher will analyze and test the data using descriptive method, text and schedules, and tables will be used to validate relationship between variables. 3. 9. 3 Data ProcessingThe researcher will use code in data processing. This includes numbering and heading so as to modify and reduce the ambiguity to the reader. Collection of data using questionnaire will be entered in the computer so as to make coding. 3. 9. 4 Data Presentation The findings of the study will be presented in a form of narration description with illustration of tables and diagrams where applicable. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY Immanuel D. Mzava &038 David Hillier (2004) Does Countrys Tax expression determine its Foreign Direct Investment Flow? The African daybook of Finance &038 Management, Volume 141 Barbara Seedha, Lauren Maxwel &038 Joseph Horton (2000) Foreign Direct Investment in Africa The African Journal of Finance &038 Management, Volume 141 Bank of Tanzania (2001) Report on the Study of Foreign reclusive with child(p) Flows in Mainland Tanzania Tanzania Investment Report. Bank of Tanzania (2006) Report on Foreign Private Investment in Tanzania Tanzania Investment Report. Recep Kok &038 Bernur Acikgoz Ersoy (2009) Analyses of FDI determinants in Developing Countries International Journal of Social Economics Volume 36 ? PP 105 123 www. emeraldinsight. com Bhinda, N and M. Martin (1994). east Africa Survey of Foreign Investors, Report by Exocomisti Association for the World Bank. Chege, M (1999). Politics of Development Institutions and National Governance, newspaper presented for Africa in the twenty-first Century Initiative (Washington D. C World Bank) IMF (1999). The Cross-Border Initiative in easterly and Southern Africa, African and Policy Development and Review Department, IMF. Kasekende L. and I. Hussain (1997). Private pileus Flows to Sub-Saharan Africa Whats the Real Story? Paper presented at Seminar, A New Paradigm of Financing Development and Development Cooperation, March 1997, Stockholm. Kasekende L. , D. Kitabire and M. Martin (1998). keen Inflows and Macroeconomic Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa, in G. K. Hellier (1998). Capital Accounts Regimes and Developing Countries (London Macmillan Press)Kasekende L. and A. Bhundia (2000). Attracting Capital Inflow to Africa Essential Elements of a Policy Package. Advanced unchanged Copy. UNCTAD (1999), Foreign Direct Investment in Africa Performance and Potential, (New York and Geneva, 1999). TIC (2002 and beyond). Tanzania Investors Guide Investment Opportu nities and Facilitation (United Republic of Tanzania, March 2002) C. Makunike (Tuesday, September 30, 2008). Tanzanias Foreign Direct Investment inflow up by 15 Percent. (www. tradeafrica. com) D. Makangale (Thursday, January 22, 2009). Investment Climate Attractive (Tanzania Daily News Paper) Macias J. B and Massa I. (June 2009). The Global Financial Crisis and Sub-Saharan Africa The moments of Slowing Private Capital Inflow on Growth Results of ODI Research Presented in advance Form for Discussion and exact Comment. (London Overseas Development Institute). Oyeyinka, B. (2004). How can Africa Benefit from Globalization? ATPS Special Paper Series No. 17 www. tic. co. tz visited on tertiary March 2010 APPENDICES vermiform process I Institute of Finance Management, P. O. Box 3918, Dar es Salaam, 10TH March, 2010. skilful Respondent, I am a student at the Institute of Finance Management undertaking Postgraduate Diploma in Financial Management. I am researching on the Potential Fa ctors that Affect Foreign Direct Investment Inflow in Tanzania.The questionnaire aims at finding data for a research paper to be presented to the Institute of Finance Management as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Award of Postgraduate Diploma in Financial Management. I kindly request you to put a tick after appropriate answer and where applicable explain why when call for to do so. The information you give will be strictly confidential and will be used for the purpose of this research. conveying you in advance. Yours truly, Kwareh, Karerema R. concomitant II RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE A GENERAL INFORMATION Date completed ________/_______/_________ Centre Name ______________________________________ Name and position of the person completing this questionnaire ____________________________________________________________ _Centre shout _____________________________________________ Tel __________________ Fax _______________ E-mail ____________ disport give details of al ternative person whom I may contact incase I have any questions __________________________________________________________ Date of Commencing Operations _____________/ _____________/ __________ B GENERAL QUESTIONS 1. To what extent have the following macroeconomic factors affected investment in our country? Very buckram +ve effect inexpugnable particular +ve exercise No Effect throttle Strong Very Strong ve Effect +ve effect ve Effect ve Effect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 At start upNow Fiscal policy( ) ( ) Monetary policy( ) ( ) Government Stability( ) ( ) Please add any additional education ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ______ 2. To what extent have the availability of condition of the following Infrastructures and services affected in our country? Very loyal +ve effectStrong curb +ve Effect No Effect Limited Strong Very Strong ve Effect +ve effect ve Effect ve Effect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 At start upNow Inland transport (roads, rails)( ) ( ) Access to seaport( ) ( ) air travelport and Air transportation( ) ( ) Electricity supply( ) ( ) Water supply( ) ( ) Please add any additional Information ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ______ 3. To what extent have the following financial factors affected investment in Tanzania? Very strong +ve effectStrong Limited +ve Effect No Effect Limited Strong Very Strong ve Effect +ve effect ve Effect ve Effect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 At start upNow Inflation( ) ( ) Availability of business finances/credit( ) ( ) Interest rates ( ) ( ) Depreciation of domestic currency( ) ( ) Exchange Control( ) ( )Please add any additional Information ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________ 4. To what extent the following governance factors affected investment op portunities in Tanzania? Very strong +ve effectStrong Limited +ve Effect No Effect Limited Strong Very Strong ve Effect +ve effect ve Effect ve Effect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 At start upNow Regional Trade( ) ( ) Trade policy( ) ( ) Bureaucracy ( ) ( ) Tax collection efficiency( ) ( ) Land law &038 administration( ) ( ) Please add any additional Information ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________ 5. Please specify the most important factors that influence your initial decision to invest in Tanzania? ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________ 6. What is the likely direction of foreign direct investment in Tan zania in the mediocre term? Please tick appropriate box Expansion No Change Contraction 7.What measures can the government undertake to improve investors attractiveness to continue investing in Tanzania and attract new investors? a. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ b. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ c. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ d. ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Thank you for your time. APPENDIX III TIME SCHEDULE This timetable will be of great help to me as a researcher to organize activities to be carried out and allocate the time accordingly. This will act as my guideline. The estimated time of conducting the research is 9 weeks. Week Activity 1st 2nd Week Preliminary preparation i. e. research proposal, budget, finding the assistant for help if necessary e. t. c. 3rd 4th Week Preparation of questionnaires, visiting the respondents and distribution of questionnaires 5th sixth Week Collection of questionnaire from respondents, analysis of the data, verification and processing 7th eighth Week Revising the paper, re-writing and bidding 9th Week Presenting the paper and defending APPENDIX IV RESEARCH BUDGET 1. 0 STATIONARY TSHS 1. 1 Ream of govern paper x2 7,000 14,000 1. 2 Ream of A4 plain papers x 2 8,000 16,000 1. cheap Disk x 1 50,000 50,000 1. 4 Ball pen, pencil, collection liquified 10,000 2. 0 SECRETARIAL SERVICES 2. 1 Proposal Typing and opinion x 2 copies 100,000 2. 2 Research Typing and printing x 2 copies 150,000 2. 3 Binding 50,000 2. 4 Photocopying of documents 20,000 3. RESEARCH EXPENSES 3. 1 assistance Researcher 80,000 3. 2 Transport to and fro 250,000 3. 3 Breakfast/lunch e. t. c 100,000 3. 4 Consultation 50,000 Sub-total 890,000 + Contingency 30% 1,157,000